Political instability has crippled the normal functioning of authorities in Pakistan for more than six decades. Since the beginning of political instability, the country has not been able to get rid of some of the main causes and propellers of the problems. Such factors include coexistence of communities who live in hostility, historical factors, tribal systems and partisan segregation. The country has not been able to regain political stability because of conflicts constitutionally, lack of democracy where people can freely express their will, economic turbulence, and absence of social growth. As a consequence, the public does not have an opportunity to be educated on how to hold their leaders accountable for anything they do.
Some factors have significantly contributed to the rise of lack of democracy. The policy makers politicized these issues with an aim of introducing democratic systems in Pakistan but only ended up promoting non-democratic elements such as the army. Such factors include territorial conflicts with India, the large existence of social-economic differences among the citizens, power struggle among the provinces and also the early death of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was the founder of Pakistan.
The system in Pakistan dictates that the winner takes everything and the loser has nothing. Every political side fights so hard to take power for the benefits that come with it. All successive civilian and military leaders have practiced this form of governing hence not offering long-term solutions to the people of Pakistan. The Muslim League which fought hard to have independence in Pakistan lacked democracy within itself. The members of the Muslim League, therefore, brought independence but with ill intentions to benefit themselves. The ten-year history between 1947 and 1956 lacked a guiding constitution and was an insincere exercise by the political leaders. The consequence was an invocation of the military who interfered with political systems.
The judiciary system has done little to help the country stabilize. It has in fact promoted the instability by taking double stances in historical matters. It is, therefore, vulnerable to political interference and has bowed in to pressure. On most occasions, the judiciary has encouraged dictators to assume power in ways that are seen as legal when in actual sense they are not. Besides, the structure of Pakistan state is very dynamic hence it prevents any democratic achievements established in the country. Pakistan has provinces divided based on ethnic boundaries. Consequently, ethnic dimensions have a significant impact on political loyalties since the central governments have the urge to be in control and manage the ethnic diversity.
Closely related to ethnic diversity is violent politics in the struggle for power. There is no exercise of patience among the citizens and leaders as required in democracies. The fear of losing drives people to violence which has a direct consequence on the economy. There is a high rate of inflation, high-income inequality among the citizens since the elite own too much yet the common citizens live in extreme poverty, negative financing to the government and also extreme deficiency of expenditure on infrastructure systems and education.
There are various steps that can be taken in order to revive political stability in Pakistan. The main areas of target should be introducing major reforms in the judiciary, establishment of an independent commission to be in charge of elections, promoting internal party elections as a way of establishing internal democracy, promoting freedom of the Press, better division of the provinces to promote peaceful coexistence among different communities, strict adherence to the constitution and protection of civil societies and other minorities.
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