In the current field of nursing, there is no doubt that nursing theories help in health care deliveries. The discovery of nursing theories began in the 1800s with Florence Nightingale. However, many nurses do not understand the concept of nursing theory and some have no clue on the presently developed theories on nursing that become a guide in their daily health care services. Therefore, nursing theories encompass frameworks and concepts that are developed to guide nursing practices. The models involve three categories such as the grand theory, the middle-range theory, and the nursing-practice theory. Thus, nursing theory drives the basis of patient care which depends on the care practice that a nurse gives to a patient. Nurses with advanced knowledge on nursing theories, practices and research provide the best care practices. For example, an examination of the theory of Self Care Deficit by Orem reveals that a patient with an illness or a problem has little ability to take care of himself. Therefore, nurses take the initiative to care for the patient until he recovers. The paper henceforth discusses nursing theory levels, the application of nurse theories and reasoning in the nursing profession.
Nursing theory has four levels which include practice level, nursing theory, and grand theory. The practice level has four parts which include the factor isolating, factor relation, situation relation and situation-producing control. The middle range theory level delves on the research and practices which reveal the basis of an action for any activity that leads to health care improvement. The grand theory level increases the nursing service perspective to the world view while the meta theory expounds on the experience of nurses in varied situations.
Regarding nursing theories, Florence Nightingale noted in the civil war that nurses have a duty that goes beyond assisting the physicians to the facilitation of the body of a patient to recover quickly through altering the environment for better. Therefore, nurses should be in constant communication with the patients to enhance their speed of recovery as revealed in the theory of Peplau and King both in 1952 and 1971 respectively. Both the theories borrow an idea from Florence Nightingale and postulate that nursing is a service in unique situations that improve the environment to suit recovery process for a patient. Besides, nursing noted as an educational tool that helps in the promotion of productive living for a patient. Therefore, patients under pathetic conditions need a better environment that reduces stress, increase their competence and euphoria to ensure that such a person overcomes both physical and psychological pain. Therefore, nurses have to be emotionally and mentally stronger to make sure that patients develop positivity in their recovery processes.
Theories such as Self-care by Orem and Roy which reveal that nursing is important to patients who are unable to care for themselves to fulfill their needs socially, biologically and psychologically. Thus, nursing as a service becomes an aspect of human life. Therefore, the role of nurses should be appreciated just like those of physicians.
The practice of nursing services by theories majorly relies on the clinical reasoning. A patient usually has both biological and behavioral needs that require nurse assistance. Nurses often take the responsibility to understand the needs of patients either mental or physical needs based on the diagnosis outcome, treatment and recovery among others. Therefore, nurses have the responsibility to assure patient and train them to face reality. Such incidences need clinical reasoning that provides solutions to the problems. Besides, the clinical reasoning comes from the conclusions of research studies that give ideas on the best methods for improving a condition of a patient. Thus, nurses can communicate such reasoning to the patients regarding the best methods for recovery.
In conclusion, the best nursing practices found their basis on nursing theories that relate to care. Besides, the nursing guidelines provide uniform and up to date procedures that help nurses to work according to the required regulations and procedures in caring for the patients in a given environment.
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